Criminal Justice Acquired Brain Injury Interest Group (CJABIIG)
Neurodevelopmental Maturity and Crime - The Need to Account for Adversity and Brain Injury in the Criminal Justice System (Infographic) - Prof Huw Williams - (see pdf. below)
Brain Injury and Offending a paper produced by the National Prisoner Healthcare Network (Scotland) under the Chairmanship of Tom McMillan of University of Glasgow and NHS GGC in March 2016 (see link below)
Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool
Prof Seena Fazel et al.
OxRisk is a project by the Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology group at the University of Oxford which calculates the risk of violent reoffending
OxRec – Risk of Recidivism
Life After Brain Injury? Improve Services Now!
In July 2012 UKABIF launched it's Campaign ‘Life After Brain Injury? Improve Services Now’ to improve rehabilitation services and support for people with Acquired Brain Injury. At the same time we launched the Manifesto Life After Brain Injury - A Way Forward to outline the necessity of acute and early access to rehabilitation for adults with ABI for optimal recovery, focussing on the need for specialist neurorehabilitation teams to manage care pathways and the cost implications of not providing adequate rehabilitation. Over a lifetime, optimal recovery results in significant savings to health care costs.
UKABIF commissioned an evidence base to be drawn together which collates the following information:
- Is rehabilitation effective?
- Does the effectiveness of rehabilitation depend on the type of brain injury?
- Can key factors promoting positive outcome be identified?
- Are there factors that can be measured at time of injury to predict outcome?
- Is rehabilitation cost effective?
This annotated bibliography presents research that appears to answer those questions. It should be noted that the studies included are not an exhaustive list of the research published. However, each section provides a snapshot into the array of research that can be used to guide the development and assessment of rehabilitation pathways.
In January 2013 UKABIF produced a film to spread the word about the campaign – you can view the film by clicking here. UKABIF would like to thank Leigh Day, Hunters Moor, Badby Park and the Queen Elizabeth Foundation for supporting the production of the film.
Health Committee Third Report Head Injury: Rehabilitation, House of Commons Session 2000-1 HC307
Life After Brain Injury: Children and Young People with Acquired Brain Injury
In November 2013 UKABIF launched a second Manifesto to improve services for Children and Young People with Acquired Brain Injury. Please click here to view the Manifesto for Children and Young People with Acquired Brain Injury. There are four demands outlined in the Manifesto:
- A National Audit of brain injury incidence and rehabilitation to collect and report accurate data on newly-acquired brain injuries from the acute to community services
- Record ABI (mild, moderate and severe) in the Personal Child Health Record and ensure long-term monitoring goals
- Facilitate the adoption of an ABI tool kit in the training programme for Special Educational Needs Co-ordinators
- The information available is signposted from an established website for use by healthcare professionals, social workers, education personnel, as well as families and carers
If you would like to support this campaign you can write to your MP. Please click here for a sample letter which you may wish to adapt for this purpose. We have also drafted a letter which MPs can send to the National Audit Office – click here for a copy. Don’t forget to tell us about your lobbying work so we can keep a record.
UKABIF would like to thank UNISON, Thompsons and Recolo for their support of the Manifesto for Children and Young People with Acquired Brain Injury.
Life After Brain Injury: Children, Young People and Offending Behaviour
In November 2015 UKABIF launched a third Manifesto ‘Life After Brain Injury: Children, Young People and Offending Behaviour’ to raise awareness and improve services for those with Acquired Brain Injury. Long-term brain injury in childhood and young adulthood is associated with an increased tendency of offending behaviour and, relative to the general population, there is a high prevalence of brain injury amongst young offenders in custody. All professionals involved with young people need to work together to recognise, understand and manage this problem.
The evidence-base documenting the incidence of brain injuries amongst young offenders in custody is significant. Acquired Brain Injury is linked to earlier, repeated offences, a greater total time spent in custody and more violent offending. Because of the hidden elements of Acquired Brain Injury, many young offenders enter the Youth Justice System but receive little or no treatment. Their differing needs and difficulties are not diagnosed or acknowledged, not understood or not taken into account when professionals are preparing cases and considering sentencing.
UKABIF has launched this Manifesto to highlight the problems faced by young offenders with recommendations to address and even prevent the issues.
Concussion and Sports Related Brain Injury
Sports related head injuries make a significant contribution to the overall numbers of brain injuries worldwide. In more recent years the dangers of repeated concussions have been raised by players, families and researchers. Concussion is now recognised as a major concern for all contact sports which has stimulated research in many countries and includes current and retired athletes from many disciplines. Many researchers, retired players, journalists and charities are campaigning for stricter control of contact sports and more research into the links between concussion and degenerative brain disease
UKABIF supports their efforts and the agreement of the guidelines which are coming into effect in many sporting practices to safeguard players of all ages.
Why is a concussion bad?
Concussed athletes are three times more likely to get another concussion
1. Brain energy crisis
2. Slow reflexes and reaction time
3. Poor balance
4. Slower thinking
5. Bad playing style
92% of repeated concussion occur within 10 days of the first concussion
McCrea et al. Neurosurgery 2009 Guskiewicz et al JAMA 2003
Dr Willie Stewart, consultant neuropathologist and honorary clinical associate professor at Glasgow’s Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, is a key player in raising awareness and carrying out research in this area. He is on the expert panel of the FA and assisted in the development of their new guidelines.
See @ for details
Concussion the movie - trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Io6hPdC41RM
Head Games: The Global Concussion Crisis www.headgamesthefilm.com/
The Crash Reel www.thecrashreel.com/store
The Mail on Sunday Concussion Campaign www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/concussion/index.htm - see also
The Jeff Astle Foundation www.thejeffastlefoundation.co.uk/ Jeff Astle was a footballer who died in 2002 aged just 59, the results of his post mortem raised serious concerns about sports related brain disease @peterrobinson86 Peter Robinson aims to raise awareness of the dangers of concussion after his son, Ben died during a rugby game aged 14
Guidelines and Tools
'If in doubt, sit them out'
The Footballers Association Concussion Guidelines published in 2015 http://static1.squarespace.com/static/550939fee4b09b5ee166e0cf/t/565741fce4b09e2585459091/1448559100914/10182+Concussion+guidelines+-+A4+document.pdf
The RFU's Headcase website - online education and information for for Coaches, Match Officials, Players and Teachers, Parents & Guardians of youth players.www.englandrugby.com/my-rugby/players/player-health/concussion-headcase/#
Sport Concussion Assessment Tool for children ages 5 to12 years http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/5/263.full.pdf
Sport Concussion Assessment Tool – 3rd edition http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/47/5/259.full.pdf
Scottish Sports Concussion Guidance:Grassroots sport and general public http://files.rcp.sg/filestore/1601210337_56a0f295e4f44/Scottish-Sports-Concussion-Guidance.pdf
The International Concussion and Head Injury Research Foundation www.ichirf.org/